La difusión del vino italiano en los Estados Unidos (1861-1914)

Palabras clave: Italia, Estados Unidos, 1861-1914, vino, vinicultura, comercio internacional

Resumen

Durante la segunda mitad del siglo xix comenzó a gestarse la fama mundial del vino italiano. Las exposiciones internacionales, la fundación de instituciones escolásticas especializadas, el nacimiento de empresas y la divulgación técnico-científica crearon las condiciones de producción y comercialización de vinos de calidad. La difusión del vino italiano en Estados Unidos constituye un caso elocuente  de los cambios que produjo la internaciolización de los mercados entre fines del siglo xix y comienzos del siglo xx. Para el vino italiano, Estados Unidos llegó a ser un punto de comparación y de estímulo. Un papel central lo jugó la oficina de vinicultura creada por el gobierno italiano en Nueva York: el objetivo de la oficina era favorecer las importaciones de vino y la circulación de noticias. El responsable de la oficina realizaba una intensa labor informativa pero también se dedicaba al análisis del vino llegado de Italia para asegurar que este no fuese adulterado y respetase las normas sanitarias vigentes en el país. La acción de la oficina —que incluso daba consejos sobre las características de los vinos— contribuyó a la formación de una cultura enólogica más moderna entre los vitivinicultores italianos que se abrieron al mercado de los Estados Unidos. Todo ello favoreció el aumento de las importaciones y del consumo de vino italiano, como demuestran los menús de los restaurantes. Siguiendo el debate historiográfico sobre los efectos de la primera fase de la globalización de la economía, el objetivo del trabajo es demostrar que además de la masiva inmigración italiana, el vino italiano de calidad se consolidó en los Estados Unidos gracias a toda una serie de iniciativas y estrategias públicas y privadas.

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Publicado
2019-07-02
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